What is above the ischial spine?

Is above or below ischial spine?

Essentially, the (-) stations are when the bony presenting part is above the ischial spines, 0 is when the bony presenting part is AT the maternal ischial spines, and the (+) stations are when the bony presenting part is below the ischial spines.

What is superior to the ischial spine?

From its posterior border there extends backward a thin and pointed triangular eminence, more or less elongated in different subjects, the ischial spine, origin of the gemellus superior muscle. Above the spine is a large notch, the greater sciatic notch; Below the spine is a smaller notch, the lesser sciatic notch.

What is attached to ischial spine?

The external surface of the spine gives attachment to the Gemellus superior, its internal surface to the Coccygeus, Levator ani, and the pelvic fascia; while to the pointed extremity the sacrospinous ligament is attached.

Where is the ischial spine?

The ischial spine is a pointed process that extends from the posterior border of the superior aspect of the ischium at the level of the lower border of the acetabulum. It gives attachment to the sacrospinous ligament.

What is oblique lie?

oblique lie a situation in which the long axis of the fetal body crosses that of the maternal body at an angle close to 45 degrees; in presentation, the shoulder usually presents first, but the arm or part of the trunk may also come first.

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What originates at ischial spine?

Muscle origins from the ischium: superior gemellus from the ischial spine. inferior gemellus from the upper border of ischial tuberosity. semimembranosus from the superolateral impression of ischial tuberosity.

Does Iliococcygeus attach to ischial spine?

Description: The Iliococcygeus arises from the ischial spine and from the posterior part of the tendinous arch of the pelvic fascia, and is attached to the coccyx and anococcygeal raphé; it is usually thin, and may fail entirely, or be largely replaced by fibrous tissue.

How many bones break during delivery?

There were 35 cases of bone injuries giving an incidence of 1 per 1,000 live births. Clavicle was the commonest bone fractured (45.7%) followed by humerus (20%), femur (14.3%) and depressed skull fracture (11.4%) in the order of frequency.

What causes a baby to be born face up?

The posterior position, also known as the occiput posterior (OP) position or the “sunny side up” position, occurs when the baby is in a head-first, forward facing position. Babies in the posterior position will be face up when they’re delivered. Posterior position can cause labor dystocia and resultant birth injuries.

What is the function of ischial spine?

They form a horizontal pelvic “floor,” and their functions are first to support the abdominopelvic organs and resist intra-abdominal pressure that is exerted from above, and second, as levator ani, to control the anal sphincter.