What causes high white blood cell count in spinal fluid?
CSF total cell counts
White blood cell (WBC) count—normally very few white blood cells are present. A significant increase in white blood cells in the CSF can be caused by infection or inflammation of the central nervous system.
Should there be white blood cells in spinal fluid?
Normally, there are no RBCs in the cerebrospinal fluid, and there should be no more than five WBCs per cubic millimeter of CSF. If your fluid contains RBCs, this may indicate bleeding. It is also possible that you had a traumatic tap (blood leaked into the fluid sample during collection).
What does blood in spinal fluid indicate?
If the CSF looks bloody or red, it may be a sign of bleeding or spinal cord obstruction. If it is brown, orange, or yellow, it may be a sign of increased CSF protein or previous bleeding (more than 3 days ago). There may be blood in the sample that came from the spinal tap itself.
What does high glucose in spinal fluid mean?
Abnormal results include higher and lower glucose levels. Abnormal results may be due to: Infection (bacterial or fungus) Inflammation of the central nervous system. Tumor.
What autoimmune disease causes high white blood cells?
Disorders related to having a high white blood count include: Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, conditions that cause the immune system to attack healthy tissues. Bacterial or viral infections. Cancers such as leukemia and Hodgkin disease.
What does high protein in CSF indicate?
An abnormal protein level in the CSF suggests a problem in the central nervous system. Increased protein level may be a sign of a tumor, bleeding, nerve inflammation, or injury. A blockage in the flow of spinal fluid can cause the rapid buildup of protein in the lower spinal area.
What is considered high protein in CSF?
EVALUATION. Spinal fluid protein concentration is usually moderately elevated, with concentrations in the 150 to 300 mg/100 mL range.
What does bacteria in spinal fluid mean?
Bacteria or other germs found in the sample may be a sign of meningitis. This is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. The infection can be caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses.
What happens when a lumbar puncture goes wrong?
When spinal fluid is removed during an LP, the risks include headache from a persistent spinal fluid leak, brain herniation, bleeding, and infection. Each of these complications are uncommon with the exception of headache, which can appear from hours to up to a day after a lumbar puncture.
How do you know if you have a spinal fluid leak?
The most common symptoms of a spinal CSF leak are:
- Positional headaches, which feel worse when sitting upright and better when lying down; caused by intracranial hypotension.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Neck pain or stiffness.
- Change in hearing (muffled, ringing in the ears)
- Sense of imbalance.
- Photophobia (sensitivity to light)
What are the contraindications of lumbar puncture?
Absolute contraindications for performing a LP include infected skin over the puncture site, increased intracranial pressure (ICP) from any space-occupying lesion (mass, abscess), and trauma or mass to lumbar vertebrae.
Is a lumbar puncture serious?
A lumbar puncture is generally a safe procedure and serious side effects are uncommon. The most common side effects are: headaches, which can last for up to a week – you’ll be given painkillers at the hospital if you need them.